Isolated fat pad sign in acute elbow injury: is it ...

An isolated fat pad sign (i.e. joint effusion without a visible fracture), commonly seen in acute elbow injury, is associated with occult fracture and treated as such. However, the clinical relevance of an isolated fat pad is unclear, thereby questioning the need for specialized follow-up. In this s …

Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries

The fat pad sign is indicative of intraarticular elbow pathology even when a fracture is not apparent on standard elbow radiographs. 6 The fat pad, or sail sign, is caused by an intra-articular elbow effusion or hemarthrosis either anteriorly or posteriorly on lateral radiographs of the elbow.

Cureus | Role of the Posterior Fat Pad Sign in Treating ...

The posterior fat pad sign (PFPS) on the lateral elbow X-ray is useful in the diagnosis of a suspected nondisplaced fracture about the elbow after a subtle injury. However, the presence of a PFPS hallmarks a continuous posterior periosteum-posterior capsule of the distal humerus. This anatomic structure is crucial for the stable anatomic reduction of a displaced extension type supracondylar ...

Fat Pad Signs in Elbow Trauma - Idaho State University

elbow, the posterior fat pad should not be visible because it is hidden within the olecranon fossa. If the fat pad is evident, further study may be warranted to investi-gate injury. (See Fig. 1-B2.) Technique is of paramount importance to evaluate the soft tissue adjacent to these areas. Fig. 1. A. Normal fat pad signs. 1. Anterior fat pad sign ...

Fat plane radiological signs in wrist and elbow trauma ...

Of the four fat plane signs at issue, two are seen at the wrist (the navicular fat stripe and the pronator quadratus sign), and two are seen at the elbow (the supinator sign and the posterior fat pad sign). When these signs are noticed without overt evidence of a fracture, it is important that further radiographic views be taken to identify or ...

X-elbow - Startradiology

The elbow joint has both anterior and posterior fat tissue, the so-called fat pads. These pads are extrasynovial but are within the articular capsule. In many cases, the anterior fat pad is seen as a thin straight lucent (= black) line at the front of the distal humerus, this is a normal finding (fig. 5).

The Elbow: Radiographic Imaging Pearls and Pitfalls

be present in the setting of elbow effusion without a ra-diographically visualized fracture (Fig. 2B).11,12 The pres-ence of a fat pad sign is especially important in pediatric Figure 1 Standard views. Anteroposterior (A) and lateral (B) elbow views are demonstrated. Anteroposterior view is obtained during full elbow extension with forearm ...

Displaced fat pads in trauma to the elbow - ScienceDirect

Injury, 9, 297-298 Printedin Great Britain 297 Displaced fat pads in trauma to the elbow R. H. Corbett X-ray Department, Haimyres Hospital, East Kilbride, Glasgow Summary A study was made of all the X-ray films of elbows taken in a casualty department in 1975, to determine the significance of posterior fat pad displacement.

The role of fat pad sign in diagnosing occult elbow ...

From January to December 2010, 31 children were diagnosed primarily with a positive fat pad sign. An above-the-elbow cast was applied and all patients were referred for an MRI within a few days ...

(PDF) Sonography of the normal elbow - ResearchGate

Elevation of the fat pads around the elbow joint is a well recognised radiological sign of a joint effusion which may be due to trauma or other inflammatory process. There are occasions when plain ...

The Predictive Value of a Normal Radiographic Anterior Fat ...

The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of a normal anterior fat pad (AFP) and to determine the association between a normal AFP and the absence of fracture. Methods: A prospective cohort of children aged 1 to18 years with elbow trauma underwent radiographic examination.

Elbow Effusion: Utility and Limitations of Radiography in ...

In elbow effusion, the posterior fat pad is displaced dorsally and superiorly by the joint fluid. Thus, bone does not flank the posterior fat pad medially and/or laterally, and it becomes visible on the lateral radiograph (Figure 3). Effusion also displaces the anterior fat pad anteriorly and superiorly.

Adult elbow radiograph (an approach) | Radiology Reference ...

Check for raised fat pads: visible posterior fat pad always indicates an elbow effusion. visible anterior fat pad may be seen in normal patients and should only be thought of as an indicator of an elbow effusion when massively raised. if there is an effusion in an adult patient, think: acute intra-articular fracture and go looking for it.

Elbow x-ray - WikEM

Anterior and posterior fat pad signs (in a case of an undisplaced fracture of the radius head which is not visible directly). A normal anterior fat pad in a non-fractured arm. Anterior "Sail sign" ... Dislocated elbow may result in avulsion of internal epicondyle

Imaging of Elbow Fractures and Dislocations in Adults ...

Elbow, fractures and dislocations. Elbow effusion with associated fat-pad elevation in the setting of radial head fracture. The anterior fat pad is elevated, and its undersurface is convex, giving the "spinnaker sail sign." The posterior fat pad is elevated out of the deep olecranon fossa and is visible just above the cortex of the distal humerus.

The Posterior Fat Pad Sign in Association with Occult ...

Background: An elevated posterior fat pad visible on a lateral radiograph of a child's elbow following trauma is generally considered to be suggestive of an intracapsular fracture about the elbow. However, in previous studies, the prevalence of fracture in elbows with an elevated posterior fat pad and no other radiographic evidence of fracture has ranged from only 6 percent (two of thirty-one ...

The elbow | Request PDF

On lateral radiographs in elbow flexion a positive fat pad sign was seen with 5 to 10 mL of fluid in the joint. Sonography allowed identification of 1 to 3 mL of fluid posteriorly with the elbow ...

THE PEDIATRIC ELBOW: A REVIEW OF FRACTURES

The way to evaluate joint effusion in the elbow is to look for a positive fat pad sign. Normally, when the elbow is flexed to 90°, the anterior fat pad may be seen just anterior to the joint; the posterior fat pad is not seen because it is located in the intercondylar fossa. With joint distention, the fat pads are displaced away from the joint ...

Reliability of fat-pad sign in radial head/neck fractures ...

The fat-pad sign must be used cautiously as an indicator of radial head/neck fractures; its absence is a more reliable indicator of the absence of a radial head/ neck fracture. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. Injury, Vol. 28, No. 7, 433-435, 1997 Introduction Fat-pad signs comprise radiological evidence of an effusion in the elbow joint and appear ...

Fractures and dislocations of the elbow - ScienceDirect

The fat pad sign was first described by Norell11 in 1954. A thin layer of fat overlies both the anterior and posterior aspects of the elbow joint capsule. The posterior fat pad lies in the shallow intercondylar depression on the pos- terior surface of the humus and therefore is invisible on the normal lateral radiograph.

Elbow Effusions in Trauma in Adults and Children ...

Elbow effusions are seen on lateral radiographs by the presence of the fat pad sign. This was first described by Norell in 1954 . These fat pads can be elevated by the presence of fluid in the joint caused by an acute fracture. We wondered how often an occult fracture was present.

Post traumatic septic arthritis of the elbow and ...

The X-ray showed anterior fat pad sign of the elbow (Figure 1). The child was admitted with diagnosis of compartment syndrome and was booked on the emergency list for surgical exploration of right forearm. Later that day, the patient was reviewed in the paediatric ward, with findings of raised local temperature, increased swelling and inability ...

Septic arthritis of the elbow in children: The role of ...

Norell HG (1954) Roentgenologic visualization of the extracapsular fat: its importance in the diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the elbow. Acta Radiol 42: 205–210. PubMed Google Scholar 7. Bledsoe RC, Izenstark JL (1959) Displacement of fat pads in disease and injury of the elbow. Radiology 73: 717–724

Displacement of Fat Pads in Disease and Injury of the Elbow

Norell (9), in an excellent observation, has described fat pad displacement about the humeral fossae in the presence of fractures involving the elbow joint, although he erroneously described the fat as "extracapsular.". A survey of the American radiological and orthopedic literature fails to reveal any report of this "fat pad sign.".

Displaced fat pads in trauma to the elbow - ScienceDirect

Summary. A study was made of all the X-ray films of elbows taken in a casualty department in 1975, to determine the significance of posterior fat pad displacement. Posterior displacement was always found to indicate a fracture, whereas anterior displacement occasionally …

Posterior fat pad sign (elbow) | Radiology Reference ...

The posterior fat pad sign is the visualization of a lucent crescent of fat located in the olecranon fossa on a true lateral view of an elbow joint with the elbow flexed at a right angle indicating an elbow joint effusion.. Normally, the posterior fat pad will not be seen in this view. In the setting of trauma, it suggests an occult non-displaced fracture. In children, a supracondylar fracture ...

Elbow Fat Pads with New Signs and Extended Differential ...

Although fat pad signs are classically associated with fracture, there are many nontraumatic disease processes which lead to positive fat pad signs. Any intraarticular fluid or tissue accumulation may result in an abnormal posterior fat pad. A "paradoxical" positive posterior fat pad sign may occur in some instances of extraarticular disease.

The Radiology Assistant : Elbow fractures in Children

Positive fat pad sign (2) Any elbow joint distention either hemorrhagic, inflammatory or traumatic gives rise to a positive fat pad sign. If a positive fat pad sign is not present in a child, significant intra-articular injury is unlikely. A visible fat pad sign without the demonstration of a fracture should be regarded as an occult fracture.

Fatty pad | anatomy | Britannica

Other articles where Fatty pad is discussed: joint: The synovial layer: …into the bursal cavity as fatty pads (plicae adiposae); these are wedge-shaped in section, like a meniscus, with the base of the wedge against the fibrous capsule. The fatty pads are large in the elbow, knee, and ankle joints.